Nobel Prize in Physics


John Robert Schrieffer

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972 was awarded jointly to John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory."

Lev Davidovich Landau

for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

In 1913, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes received the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures, which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid He4", and the discovery of superconductivity.

In 1908, Kamerlingh Onnes successfully liquefied helium. This allowed him to investigate the thermodynamics properties of helium in the liquid and gas phase. He also investigated the electrical properties of metals down to about 1K. In 1911, he observed the transition to a "zero resistance state" in a pure mercury sample as the temperature of the sample was lowered to below 4.2K. He labeled this "zero resistance state" as "superconductivity."