A quantum-accurate waveform with an rms output amplitude of 1 V has been synthesized for the first time. This fourfold increase in voltage over previous systems was achieved through developments and improvements in bias electronics, pulse-bias techniques, Josephson junction array circuit fabrication, and packaging. A recently described ac-coupled bipolar pulse-bias technique was used to bias a superconducting integrated circuit with 25 600 junctions, which are equally divided into four series-connected arrays, into the second quantum state. We describe these advancements and present the measured 1 V spectra for 2 Hz and 10 Hz sine waves that remained quantized over a 0.4 mA current range. We also demonstrate a 2 kHz sine wave produced with another bias technique that requires no compensation current and remains quantized at an rms voltage of 128 mV over a 1 mA current range. Increasing the clock frequency to 19 GHz also allowed us to achieve a maximum rms output voltage for a single array of 330 mV.

 IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity ( Volume: 25 , Issue: 1 , Feb. 2015 )

One-Volt Josephson Arbitrary Waveform Synthesizer