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Federico Scurti invented the SMART Conductor which are optical fibers embedded within superconducting wiring that monitor for failures in High-Temperature Superconductor systems. He also created optical fibers with increased thermal sensitivity at cryogenic temperatures.
Dr. Gargini provides an overview of the development of semiconductor technology roadmaps and their recent evolution to encompass other materials (including superconductors), as well as other aspects including architecture, algorithms, software, and applications. He also discusses parameters related to the growing field for quantum computing.
Dr. Holmes reprises some of the background about the semiconductor technology roadmaps evolving recently into the "International Roadmap for Devices and Systems" (IRDS) and how technologies based on cryogenics and superconductors have become part of IRDS with a dedicated chapter being prepared by the researchers and engineers in this field and how it will be updated in years to come.
In this video, a panel discussion moderated by Dr. Scott Holmes examines the view of panelists on the status and prospects for cryogenics-based and superconductivity-based technologies for computation, information, communication, including quantum computing.
The panelists are:
The observations of gravitational waves from the mergers of compact binary sources opens a new way to learn about the universe as well as to test General Relativity in the limit of strong gravitational interactions – the dynamics of massive bodies traveling at relativistic speeds in a highly curved space-time. The lecture will describe some of the difficult history of gravitational waves proposed about 100 years ago. The concepts used in the instruments and the methods for data analysis that enable the measurement of gravitational wave strains of 10-21 and smaller will be presented. The results derived from the measured waveforms, their relation to the Einstein field equations and the astrophysical implications are discussed. The talk will end with a vision for the future of gravitational wave astronomy.
Numerous astrophysical measurements indicate that much of our universe is made of an undiscovered type of matter, termed 'Dark Matter'. The axion is a hypothetical particle that is a well-motivated candidate for dark matter inspired by the Peccei-Quinn solution to the Strong-CP problem in Nuclear Physics. After decades of work, the US DOE flagship axion dark matter search, ADMX G2, is the first experiment to be sensitive to plausible DFSZ coupling model of dark matter axions, in part due to the addition of superconducting quantum-limited amplifiers. ADMX G2 has begun to search the theoretically-favored axion mass region 2-40 micro-eV, and could now discover dark matter at any time.
This presentation provides a survey of the activities in quantum computing research and development in the United States, including those carried in academic institutions, industrial research laboratories, as well as government research laboratories.
The flagship initiative in Europe is boosting excellent research results in areas like quantum secure communication, quantum sensing, and quantum simulation and computing into concrete technological opportunities that can be taken up by industry. Quantum technologies ultimately are expected to enable solutions which address grand challenges in such fields as energy, health, security and the environment. Some are already starting to be commercially exploited. Others may still require years of fundamental research and development. The presentation gives a survey of the objectives and activities in Europe in the context of the quantum flagship covering all topics but emphasizing those based on superconducting materials and devices.
Quantum annealing (QA) is a quantum algorithm that can be realized at-scale using existing superconducting circuit fabrication technologies and it can be applied to a wide range of commercially-relevant computation problems. State-of-the-art QA processors contain an amalgamation of single flux quantum (SFQ)-based digital circuits, high bandwidth microwave components, and flux qubits, thus employing a wide range of superconducting devices for a common purpose. Lessons learned from this effort are expected to have significant practical implications for the broader scope of future superconducting-based quantum technologies beyond QA. This lecture consists of a brief review of current state-of-the-art QA technology, a comparison of today's QA technology to other nascent quantum computing implementations, and a survey of efforts that are underway to realize next-generation QA-related technologies using superconducting circuits.
In this talk, I will first give an overview of Chinese government Quantum information programs and then will focus on quantum computing. I will briefly introduce the main target of quantum computing in the next few years in China. As superconducting quantum computing has become one of the most promising candidates, more details of it will be shown, including our recent main signs of progress in the superconducting multi-qubit system, the next five-year plan, the funding, and the Commercial partner.
We will give an overview of research activities on superconducting quantum computing in Japan. We will also present our approach toward integrated superconducting qubit platforms for quantum computing.
Low-temperature superconductors (LTS) require liquid helium, yet can only generate a magnetic field lower than 24 T. For full-fledged commercialization of superconducting equipment, high temperature superconducting (HTS) conductors are preferred as they can be cooled by the more cost-efficient liquid nitrogen and they can generate a much higher magnetic field, such as 30 T at 4.2 K. However, one of the major drawbacks of the HTS conductor is its short maximum length of a single conductor wire, typically <500 m. As a result, many joints need to be installed in the superconducting equipment, resulting in a difficult manufacturing process and a complicated operating procedure. Thus, we commenced a 10-year JST-MIRAI Program in 2017, focusing on developing the joint technology for linking HTS conductors. The program has two important research and development directions:
Dramatic progress has been made in the last decade and a half towards realizing solid-state systems for quantum information processing with superconducting quantum circuits. Artificial atoms (or qubits) based on Josephson junctions have improved their coherence times more than a million-fold, have been entangled, and used to perform simple quantum algorithms. The next challenge for the field is demonstrating quantum error correction that actually improves the lifetimes, a necessary step for building more complex systems. At Yale, we have been pursuing a hardware-efficient approach for error correction, that relies on encoding information in a superconducting cavity, the so-called “cat codes.” With this approach, we have applied real-time measurements and feedback to achieve the first extension of the lifetime of a quantum bit through error correction. For scaling, an attractive approach is the modular architecture, in which small quantum processors are networked together using microwave signals on superconducting transmission lines. I will present the first implementation of a teleported C-NOT gate, which is a key building block for the modular approach.
More information provided here.
Recent large-scale improvements in technical performance and production capacity of HTS materials, principally REBCO tape and Bi-2212 round wire, are enabling extension of magnet technology to magnetic fields of 20 T and well beyond. This has enormous potential benefit for both scientific and economic reasons in many applications of superconductor technology. In this roundtable discussion, three experts in the fields of NMR/MRI, High Energy Physics, and Magnetic Confinement Fusion are brought together to discuss the expansion of the scientific and technical horizons enabled by HTS technology. and to compare and contrast how the technology is being used in these particular applications.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been widely used in chemical, biochemical, and biological research, where high field magnets are playing central roles. Currently, most NMR magnets are made of low-temperature superconductors, typically a combination of NbTi and Nb3Sn. Although the last upgrade of LTS NMR magnet field was 23 T (1 GHz of 1H NMR frequency) in 2010 by the Bruker BioSpin, the higher field has been desired by the NMR user community. It is widely agreed among magnet engineers that high-temperature superconductor (HTS) capable of generating a field far greater than 23 T will play an increasingly indispensable role in >1 GHz NMR magnet. Yet, technical challenges, especially protection of HTS magnet and field inhomogeneity by screening currents, need to be overcome for widespread use of HTS in GHz-class NMR magnets. In this discussion, key technical challenges and state-of-the-art technologies in HTS NMR magnets are briefly introduced together with the latest achievements in HTS NMR magnets.
Likewise, in the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) NbTi and Nb3Sn superconducting magnets have been key to major particle physics and nuclear physics colliders including the Tevatron, RHIC, HERA, and LHC. The 8.33 T NbTi accelerator dipole magnets underpin the LHC at CERN, enabling the discovery of the Higgs Boson and the ongoing search for physics beyond the standard model of high energy physics, whereas Nb3Sn magnets are a key to a high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC that aims to increase the luminosity of the LHC by a factor of 5-10. In this discussion, we examine how emerging HTS conductor and magnet technologies can extend scientific space into higher fields (> 20T) and higher temperature for frontier accelerator facilities, and how HTS conductors can meet the severe requirements in terms critical current, magnetization, stress management, and quench protection.
The recent commercial availability of high-temperature superconductors (HTS), specifically second-generation HTS REBCO coated conductors, at the scale and performance required to build high-field magnets represents a breakthrough opportunity to accelerate fusion energy. Many of the key fusion energy performance metrics in a tokamak, the leading fusion energy concept, scale as the strength of the magnetic field available to confine the plasma to the third or fourth power. One of the most important consequences of this fact is that increasing the magnetic field in a tokamak enables a dramatically smaller device to demonstrate net-energy production. A reduction in size is accompanied by important reductions in cost, timeline, and organizational complexity required to construct and operate the device, enabling a net-energy fusion device to be constructed at university or private company scale through innovative private funding models. The first step in this pathway – now actively underway at several institutions and companies – is to demonstrate the large-bore, high-field REBCO superconducting magnet technology at suitable scale for fusion systems. Part of this panel discussion will look at the game-changing advantages of high magnetic field fusion physics and engineering and some of the efforts underway to pursue this accelerated pathway to fusion energy.
BSCCO, NMR, High Energy Physics accelerators, nuclear fusion
Because of their complexity on length scales from atomic disorder to macroscopic cables, the development of the high-performance superconductors relies on an accurate characterization of their micro- and macro-structures. Furthermore, the performance of superconductors is often limited by structural and chemical inhomogeneities, both locally and over long lengths, that provide particular challenges for techniques that often sample only small volumes of material. In this talk, we demonstrate how key developments in our understanding of superconductors wire made possible by combining quantitative microscopic and microchemical techniques with detailed characterizations of superconducting properties. As we push our current generation of superconductors towards its limits, we look at the new innovations in microscopy required to understand those limitations and provide us with the information we need to make the next generation of superconductor applications a reality.
The use of HTS in Mobility and in Power Technology is not a goal by itself. We will consider general and fundamental aspects and correlations in the respective field and enlighten the basic relations - not requiring the audience to be deep dive experts in the field, but aiming to provide some new insights for everyone. HTS, in general, is a quite well-known phenomenon to many potential end users; some of them have been in touch with HTS during the bloom of 1G-HTS already. Due to the fact that the HTS materials and wires have made extremely good progress in the last years, it is important to educate the engineers active in the field and in conventional business on changed and actual boundary conditions and chances. Depending on the specific application in Mobility and Power Technology, the key success properties of HTS and device will vary a lot, and we will try to provide some takeaways to sharpen the awareness and provide some clues to assess the wisdom of a HTS based device. Despite the progress in HTS performance, there are still white spots needing development efforts. These needs are in even more improved performance and/ or in research for new solutions. So we will try to sketch some ideas for future optimized devices.
For more than five decades, ASC has been an important gathering point for the electronics, large scale, and materials fields within the applied superconductivity community, and we’re proud to continue that tradition this year in Seattle, a vibrant urban city set in what is truly one of the most beautiful parts of North America. We hope you will be able to enjoy much of what the city and the region has to offer, and we are also working hard on a technical program that will represent a wide cross-section of the field and an exhibition that will allow you to connect with the industrial representatives who are critical to enabling us, as scientists and engineers, to do our work.
We are further happy to continue partnering with the IEEE Council on Superconductivity to allow submission of conference manuscripts to a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (TAS), a peer-reviewed and fully indexed and searchable publication available through IEEE Xplore.
On behalf of many, many volunteers making this conference possible – whether serving as members of the ASC Board of Directors, Program Committee, Editorial staff, or as chairs of conference initiatives, we look forward to seeing you in Seattle!
Chair, ASC 2018
Prof. Barish opens the conference with a discussion that will stimulate our thoughts about large projects, such as particle accelerators, which rely upon superconductivity. Besides being a founder of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), Prof. Barish was the Director of the Global Design Effort for the International Linear Collider (ILC) project, and co-chair of the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel subpanel that developed a long-range plan for U.S. high energy physics back in 2001. Prof. Barish will share his view on linear-collider projects that require superconducting radio-frequency cavities and other large physics and astrophysics projects.